What are Adjectives?
Adjectives are parts of speech, defined as the words that are used for describing nouns or pronouns. These are sometimes called sense words that are simply related to parameters like type, size, smell, color, behavior, quantity, etc.
Adjectives are said to be used as modifications to nouns or pronouns by the use of which it becomes more descriptive.
Consider some examples to identify the presence of nouns in any given sentence.
Example: Mr. Joseph is an old man but he is strong.
Here the words old and strong are adjectives that are describing nouns i.e., Mr. Joseph.
Previously, we have discussed nouns and pronouns with their respective types where we have seen that nouns are the words used as a reference to the name of any person, place, or thing. While pronouns are used to eliminate the repetitive use of nouns. Like in the above-given sentence Mr. Joseph is a man which is a noun whereas he in the above sentence is a pronoun, which is a replacement of noun.
Example: Liza is a smart and beautiful girl.
Liza is a noun whose qualities smart and beautiful are defined in the above sentence. Thus, smart and beautiful are the two adjectives in the above sentence.
Example: The thirsty crow tried hard to raise the water level.
Here the word thirsty is an adjective that is used to show the feeling of the noun i.e., a crow who is thirsty (adjective).
One must note a point over here that in any sentence, an adjective may exist before, or after the noun or sometimes after a linking verb. The linking verbs are is, am, are, was, were, etc.
Example: Her dresses are expensive.
Here ‘are’ is a linking verb that is used in reference to show the cost of dresses.
Types of Adjectives
These are the following types of adjectives:
1. Descriptive Adjectives: The adjectives that offer descriptions related to the characteristics or qualities of nouns or pronouns are called descriptive adjectives. Generally, most of the adjectives define quality thus are known to be descriptive in nature.
- She is a cunning girl.
- This Park is full of attractive trees.
- She has a cute smile.
Here the words, cunning, attractive, and cute define the nature of qualities thus are descriptive adjectives.
2. Demonstrative Adjectives: The ones that are used to show the positional characteristics of nouns or pronouns in space or time are called demonstrative pronouns.
- This is one of my favorite places.
- I love that shade of purple.
Here this and that are the demonstrative adjectives.
3. Proper Adjectives: These are basically used in reference to proper nouns and mainly show relation to a specific person or place.
- She loves Italian food.
- Indian history is quite interesting.
In the above examples, Italian and Indian are the two words that are proper adjectives.
4. Predicate Adjectives: The adjectives that are present as the subject complement and use linking verbs for modification. These do not exist next to the nouns or pronouns.
- The tree is tall.
- The food prepared by her mother was delicious.
Here tall and delicious are predicative adjectives that use linking verbs is and was respectively to show the characteristics of the subject.
5. Comparative Adjectives: The adjectives that are used to form a comparison between two different entities are known as comparative adjectives.
- The second season of this series is more entertaining than the first one.
- Liza is younger than Fiza.
Here the words more entertaining and younger are comparative adjectives.
6. Superlative Adjectives: The adjectives that are used to form a comparison between more than two entities in order to show the one which is supreme amongst all are known as superlative adjectives.
- This is the oldest tree in our garden area.
- She chose the most challenging task and complete it.
Here oldest and most challenging are the words that represent superlative adjectives.
7. Possessive Adjectives: The adjectives that represent the ownership of nouns or pronouns over something are possessive pronouns.
- She conquered her fear.
- This is our dream house.
Here the words her and our represent possessive adjectives.
8. Quantitative Adjectives: The adjectives that describe the quantity in reference to show how much it is of something.
- She completed her assignment in 3 days.
- This dress costs 25 dollars.
Here 3 and 25 are showing quantity thus denote quantitative adjectives.
9. Interrogative Adjectives: The adjectives that are used in reference to interrogation i.e., relative to asking questions are called interrogative adjectives.
- Which place do you like the most?
- Whose pen is lost?
Here which and who are the interrogative adjectives.
10. Indefinite Adjectives: The adjectives that modify nouns or pronouns using words through indefinite or unspecific meaning are called indefinite adjectives.
- Students from various universities are taking part in this competition.
- I have some important work to do.
Various and some indefinitely inform about the nouns of their respective sentences.
11. Distributive Adjectives: The adjectives that are used in reference to show the group of members combinedly is called distributive adjectives.
- Each student must bring their own coloring book.
- Every member is doing their part of the work.
Here words each and every are modifying the nouns thus are distributive adjectives.