What is Directing? Giving instructions and guiding others while they work is called directing. A method or approach known as “directing” involves educating, guiding, motivating, counselling, supervising, and leading individuals toward the achievement of corporate goals. Management experts define direction as all the actions used to motivate subordinates to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently. […]


What is Management? Management is the process of getting things done through people and focusing individual efforts around a shared goal. It is a method of deriving tasks from others in a coordinated and integrated manner in order to achieve certain goals through the efficient use of material resources. Management can benefit by mobilizing the […]


What is Organizing? Organising fundamentally refers to a process that combines resources with human labour to create a cohesive whole that can be used to accomplish specific goals. The management task of organising comes after planning. It is a process that involves the coordination and fusion of human, material, and financial resources. To achieve outcomes, […]


What is Formalization? Formalization refers to the degree to which the job and incumbent’s role are standardized through formal documentation by way of procedures, job descriptions, policies, manuals, rules and other similar mechanisms. It represents the degree to which an organization standardizes the thoughts and behaviour of employees. And thus constrain their choices and freedom […]

Levels of Management

What are Levels of Management? Levels of Management implies the various series of managers that can be found in or present at different levels of the organization from top to bottom, as per their authority and responsibility. The word ‘management’ does not connote a single person rather it implies a group thereof. In an organization, […]

Group Cohesiveness

What is Group Cohesiveness? Group Cohesiveness can be defined as the degree and strength of attachment (togetherness) between the members of the group. It is one of the important factors which influences group behaviour. The higher the group cohesiveness, the greater will be the interaction and degree of agreement (on various matters) between the group […]