Diabetes and Its Types

Such a clinical condition which is marked by rising in blood glucose level (hyperglycemia). It is also known as ‘Diabetes Mellitus‘. In this condition, the hormone ‘Insulin’ responsible for regulating the blood sugar level, is either not sufficiently produced by the pancreas or when the body is unable to use it (insulin) effectively, it may lead to the chronic disease, ‘diabetes’.

If the high blood sugar level or diabetes is left untreated it may affect the eyes, nerves, kidneys, and other body parts.

Symptoms of Diabetes

The common symptoms of the increased blood sugar level are:

  • Weight loss.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Increase thirst.
  • Increased hunger.
  • Blurry vision.
  • Unhealed sores or may take more time to repair.

Common symptoms in men are erectile dysfunction (ED), loss of decreased sex drive, and weakness resulting in poor muscle strength.

Common symptoms in women are yeast infections, urine infections, dry and itchy skin, etc.

Types of Diabetes

Following are the types of diabetes:

  1. Type 1 diabetes.
  2. Type 2 diabetes.
  3. Prediabetes.
  4. Gestational diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes: It is an autoimmune disease, that attacks 10 percent of people. In this, the immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas, where insulin is produced.

Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes

  • Tiredness and weak muscles strength.
  • Increased thirst and hunger.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Blurry vision.
  • Weight loss.
  • Mood swings.

Type 2 diabetes: When the body of a person gains resistivity to insulin, that results in the rising of the sugar level in the blood.

Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes

  • Tiredness and weak muscles strength.
  • Increased thirst and hunger.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Blurry vision.
  • Sores that take time to heal, as the raised blood glucose does not support the healing of the sores.

Prediabetes: The condition when the person’s blood sugar count is higher than the normal but not that adequate to conclude him as the type 2 diabetic.

Gestational diabetes: Such condition during pregnancy, when the blood sugar level rises from the normal range, in this insulin blocks the hormones produced by the placenta, resulting in the high blood sugar level. The woman experiences frequent urination, a rise in hunger, and thirst.

Here the symptoms are unnoticeable and the elevated sugar level in blood is diagnosed through a blood test. It can also be tested by performing the Oral blood test in the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy.

Common Causes of Diabetes

As said before, In Type 1 diabetes, the reason is still unknown that how the self immune system attacks and demolishes the beta cells, that produce insulin in the pancreas. It is also said genes can also be the reason or attack of any particular virus that may trigger such activity in the body.

In the case of Type 2 diabetes, the combinations of factors such as lifestyle and genetic play a crucial role, with the combination of being overweight triggers the chances of hitting this condition.

Furthermore, in gestational diabetes, the hormones and the biological changes in the body are responsible for it, The effects of insulin get reduced due to the presence of the placenta, which released certain hormones causing the body less sensitive towards insulin.

Complication in Diabetes

High Bood sugar level, may result in various complications in the body, those are:

  • Organs damage.
  • Neuropathy.
  • Nephropathy.
  • Heart attack, stroke, or Heart disease.
  • Vision loss.
  • Hearing problem.
  • Depression.
  • Skin conditions.
  • Sores that take a longer time to heal.
  • Dementia.

In the case of Pregnancy, Low blood sugar, high weight which is more than the normal pregnancy, jaundice, premature delivery, stillbirth, risk of getting Type2 diabetes in the later stage of life, high blood pressure is also faced by the mother and may need to rush for the cesarean delivery or C- section.

The Bottom line says that though nowadays, Diabetes is counted as the most common disease widely, one can control it by changing the lifestyle, doing exercises, eating high nutritive food, etc

Diabetes insipidus is a term similar to this condition, however, it is not different in functionality, as in this the kidney removes the excess fluid from the body.

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