The Central Dogma describes the chronology of the genetic code, from the DNA (Deoxy ribonucleic acid) to the making of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and to protein. There is no short cut of this process, the series of chemical coding and decoding goes in this manner only and if got untracked the consequences can be life threatening also.
The primary building block of all the living beings in the nucleic acids. They comprises of the set of complex compounds of monomeric nucleotides forming linear chain. Each of the nucleotide is composed up of sugar, phosphate backbone and nitrogenous base. These compounds plays the important role in replication, mutation, expression of the genetic information.
The two major and most famous nucleic acids are the DNA and RNA, where DNA is work is awe-creditable containing the codes to heredity, whilst RNA is also not last in the race as it has the work to make proteins and making the DNA to work in the front-foot. Though working with the surety of the errorless performance in DNA replication, followed by the translation, expressions and to send the stuff at the required place is the crucial work to make the life run.
The DNA and RNA share similarities as well differences, this content will focus on the both the points in a tabular form as well as descriptively.
What is DNA?
The full form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid, which consist of two long polynucleotide chains. This series of twisted coils forms a double helical structure carrying the genetic or hereditary material within it. This genetic material is responsible for the living beings growth and development. This stored biological information is stored and transferred to other cells during replication
What is RNA?
The full form of RNA is ribonucleic acid, which is a polymeric molecule. After the process of replication, the nucleotides undergoes through the process of coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. There are few major types of RNA – messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA). They all have different functions right from the transferring genetic information to synthesis of proteins.
Similarities Between DNA and RNA
- Both of them consist of the genetic material, which is transmitted to the new cell or organisms of their type.
- DNA and RNA are the biological polymers of nucleotides.
- DNA and RNA bears the nitrogenous bases, sugar and phosphate backbone.
- DNA and RNA has the common nucleotide pairing in Guanine and Cytosine ( which means they are complementary to each other sharing three hydrogen bonds), while differ id Adenine, Thymine and Uracil.
Difference Between DNA and RNA
Deoxyribose nucleic acid is present in a nucleus of a cell, additional amount of DNA is also found in mitochondria.
Ribose nucleic acid is also present in the nucleolus of a cell, further gets migrated to the specific regions of the cytoplasm on the ground of their role and type.
As DNA is known for storing and transferring the genetic information of an individual to the same type. Simultaneously, it initiate the first step of the protein production which is replication. Moreover, it is helpful in metabolic activities, differentiation and evolution.
RNA plays the significant role in further transferring the genetic material from the DNA to protein synthesis ( outside the nucleus).
Size, shape and weight
The molecular weight of DNA is 2-6 millions, which is the B-form, double helical structure, long double stranded molecules giving the ladder like shape.
The molecular weight of RNA is 25,000 – 2 million, which is the A-form, single stranded, shorter chains of nucleotides.
Nucleotides and Base pairing
DNA has four nucleotides, namely Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Guanine and base pairing goes on like AT (adenine-thymine); GC (guanine-cytosine).
RNA has four nucleotide, namely Adenine, Cytosine, Uracil and Guanine, while bae paring goes on AU (adenine-uracil); GC (guanine-cytosine).
Bonds and Stability
As the DNA has the deoxyribose sugar, and has the backbone of nucleotides (A, T, C, G). The bonds between C-H in DNA makes it stable under alkaline conditions, additionally helpful in thrashing the enzymes causing harm to the DNA in any way.
As the RNA has the ribose sugar, and has the backbone of nucleotides (A,U,C,G). The bonds between O-H in ribose of RNA makes it reactive and unstable under alkaline conditions and it is more susceptible to enzymes due to the presence of large grooves in the molecule.
Major enzymes and their functions
As DNA is self-replicating, so here process is initiated by DNA polymerase along with primer. Hydrolyzing enzyme is DNAase and proof reading is also done carefully.
As RNA derives from the DNA, on the basis of requirements, but to start the propagation is needs RNA polymerase. Hydrolyzing enzymes is RNA, however proof reading activity is not performed in RNA.
Quick Comparison: DNA Vs RNA
|Deoxyribonucleic acid.||Ribonucleic acid.|
|DNA is present within the nucleus, and also some amount is also found in mitochondria.||RNA is present in nucleolus, further it moves to the specific part of cytoplasm of the cell on the basis of types of RNA formed.|
|It stores the genetic information and transfer it to the newly formed cell and organisms.||RNA is helpful in production of proteins, for which it sends the genetic codes from nucleus to the ribosome of the cell. In some cases even RNA is responsible for preserving transferring the genetic information.|
|DNA has B-form double helical geometry, forming double-stranded twist of macromolecule having a long chain of nucleotides and thus giving it a ladder shape.||RNA has A-form of helical geometry, forming single-stranded molecule having shorter chains of nucleotides.|
|DNA consist of the deoxyribose sugar phosphate backbone and bases as adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.||RNA consist of the ribose sugar phosphate backbone and bases as adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.|
|DNA has the self-replicating characteristics.||RNA derives from the DNA as per the requirement.|
|The molecular weight of DNA is 2 - 6 millions.||The molecular weight of RNA is 25,000 - 2 million.|
|In DNA the base pairing is of AT ( adenine-thymine); GC (guanine-cytosine).||In RNA the base pairing is of AU ( adenine-uracil); GC (guanine-cytosine).
|The bonds between C-H in DNA makes it stable under alkaline conditions, additionally helpful in thrashing the enzymes causing harm to the DNA in any way.||The bonds between O-H in ribose of RNA makes makes it reactive and unstable under alkaline conditions and it is more susceptible to enzymes due to the presence of large grooves in the molecule.|
|DNA is prone or sensitive to UV damage.||RNA in comparison to DNA has resistivity to UV damage.|
|DNA are of five types which are A - DNA, B - DNA, C - DNA, D - DNA and Z - DNA.|
Chromosomal DNA (nuclear DNA) and extra-chromosomal (chl-DNA, plasmid DNA, mt-DNA).
|The three main types of RNA are messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA).
hnRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, miRNA, siRNA.
It is been under the research, that there few unusual DNA and RNA structures, where the evidence is of branched DNA structure, triple strands and quadruplex DNA are found. Moreover, they are studying the structure where phosphorous has been substituted by the arsenic.
In case of RNA, sometimes double-stranded RNA (ds RNA), circular single-stranded (circ RNA) has been found in some plants and animals, however function is still unknown.