Electric Vehicle Technology

Electric vehicle technology basically uses electricity for the functioning of the vehicle. Due to increasing pollution, and global warming issues many countries are promoting automobile manufacturers to go for Electric Vehicles. Govt. is also giving incentives and support to EV manufacturers.

A typical/Regular passenger vehicle emits something around 4 to 5 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. The use of fossil fuels leads to the emission of greenhouse gases which are responsible for increasing global warming. Environmental issues are making electric vehicles popular.

Electric Vehicle Technology

  1. Working Principle of Electric Vehicle
  2. Main Components of Battery Electric Vehicles
  3. Classification of EVs
  4. Advantages and Disadvantages

Working Principle of Electric Vehicle

An electric vehicle uses electrical energy stored in a battery to run the electric motor for propulsion.
When the accelerator or the pedal is pressed, then the controller draws and regulates electrical energy from the batteries.

Electric Vehicle Technology


The inverter sends power to the electric motor, which in turn converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used to turn the transmission system to rotate the wheels.

Main Components of Battery Electric Vehicles

  1. Battery Pack: Its function in an electric vehicle is to store electrical energy. It’s the powerhouse of an electric vehicle. When it gets a signal, the battery will flow DC electrical energy to power and drive the vehicle. The battery used in an electric vehicle is a rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are the most popular and widely used type of battery.
  2. Inverter: Its function is to convert Direct current (DC) from the battery into Alternating Current(AC), which is then used by an electric motor. Besides this, it also converts AC from regenerative braking into DC and is used to charge the battery pack.
  3. Controller: It works as a regulator of electrical energy from the battery and inverter. It manages the flow of electrical energy.
  4. Electric Motor: It works in turning the transmission system and the wheels.
  5. Battery Charger: It is a battery charging device. It gets electrical power from an outside source. AC power is then converted into DC and stored in the battery.
  6. Transmission System: It transfers mechanical power from the electric motor in order to drive the wheels.
  7. Thermal Cooling System: It helps maintain the proper temperature of the electric motor and other various electronic parts of the EV.
  8. Charging Port: This allows the Electric Vehicle to connect to the external power source to charge the batteries.

Classification of EVs

Classification of Electric Vehicle

 All Electric Vehicles

These type of Vehicles get their power only from electrical energy stored in batteries. No other source of power is available. AEVs totally rely on power from the battery to run the vehicle and all its equipment. The battery pack is charged by an external outlet and through regenerative braking also. These types of vehicles emit no harmful gases and are total no-emission vehicles. This type of vehicle can be further classified as under:

  1. Battery Electric Vehicle: This type of vehicle uses the electrical energy stored in the battery pack to run the motor. The range of the vehicle depends upon the battery size.
  2. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle: This type of vehicle also runs through an electric motor. Here instead of a battery pack, pure hydrogen is used for generating power. In a fuel cell, Hydrogen and oxygen combine to produce electrical energy to power the electric motor. Due to this chemical reaction, the vehicle emits water.

Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

This type of vehicle has both an electric motor and an Internal combustion engine. Here internal combustion engine gets its power from fuel, whereas the electric motor gets power from the battery pack.

Advantages and Disadvantages

advantages and disadvantages of Battery Electric vehicles compared to conventional Vehicles using an Internal Combustion engine.


  1. Electric Vehicles use Electric motors for propulsion and hence emit no gases such as carbon dioxide, NOx, NMHC or other pollutants. These vehicles are eco-friendly.
  2. Electric Vehicles cause low Noise pollution as compared to conventional engines.
  3. Electric Vehicles have fewer moving parts and hence require less/low maintenance. Other components like engine oil, engine cooling systems, exhaust system etc. are absent in electric vehicles.
  4. Electric vehicles have low running cost as compared to conventional vehicles.
  5. Electric motors are efficient than the ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) in converting energy stored to drive the wheels.
  6. EVs offer smooth and quiet rides and overall gives a better drive quality.

Disadvantages/Challenges Faced by Electric Vehicles

  1. Lack of electric vehicle charging infrastructure/ charging stations.
  2. Refueling in a conventional vehicle is a matter of seconds or few minutes, whereas it takes long time to charge an electric vehicle. Charging of battery is time consuming.
  3. Range of electric vehicles depends on its battery capacity. Range of distance traveled by an electric vehicle is much less than conventional vehicle.
  4. Low range, battery charging time, lack of charging infrastructure makes electric vehicles inconvenient for long trips.
  5. Life of the batteries and their replacement cost.

The progress and growth of the EV industry are very slow due to its cost but are necessary due to increasing global warming and other climate issues. EV technology is advancing day by day, which has enabled its use in everyday life.

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