What is Job Design?
Job design is the next step after job analysis and entails deliberate attempts to group tasks, responsibilities, and duties into a work unit that supports organisational goals. It has to do with setting up the job’s components so that everyone in the group can participate and complete the same task. In terms of how an employee’s skills are used, jobs might be extremely complex or very basic.
In addition, studies suggested that workers who performed well-designed jobs demonstrated high levels of motivation and pleasure. On the other hand, poorly designed jobs result in monotony, boredom, ambiguity, and conflicts, which lead to discontent.
Therefore, job design aids in channelling employee’s energy for effective organisational performance. Furthermore, the design of a job affects how an organisation and its employees behave.
Features of Job Design
- There is a link between job design and work-life balance.
- Job designs are both managerial and technical.
- It is focused on the work, motivation, and conduct of people.
- The uniformity of work functions is a concern.
- The aim of job design is to increase worker productivity.
Techniques of Job Design
In this method, jobs are divided into very little pieces, with each “task” being carried out repeatedly by the same person. As a result, the employee reaches a high level of proficiency.
High volume and product quality are generated in a short amount of time. As a result, the employee receives bigger rewards. On the organization’s side productivity is at its peak. Since the person is performing the task regularly, he becomes proficient, and the organisation incurs almost no training expenses.
There are, however, certain drawbacks as well. A worker is likely to get bored and have frequent absences since the task is monotonous. Over time, frustration could have a negative impact on both quality and quantity. Organisations could attract more employees by paying better salaries.
When two or more simple tasks are combined and given to one individual, this is referred to as a job enlargement. In this instance, more tasks are added to a job so that the employee has a variety of easy jobs to complete. The benefit of this approach is greater employment variety and the development of new skills. Employee dissatisfaction is inevitable after a prolonged period of dullness.
Job rotation is a process in which an employee is periodically moved from one job to another within the structure of the work. Over time, it entails shifting individuals between various jobs.
In this approach, the issue of job expansion is automatically resolved, keeping workers from becoming bored. As they move from one position to another throughout a job rotation, employees have the chance to perform various tasks over a few weeks or months. As a result, the business obtains specialisation among its workforce.
Job enrichment is a method of job design in which a person is expected to have a wide range of talents. It includes inherent drive, complete control over the work, and chances for development. Richer work environments provide employees with intrinsic value and encourage employee motivation.
Another method of job redesign is job reengineering. It speaks of reworking jobs in response to customer feedback. There is continuous performance of the jobs. Continuous evaluation is done of the reactions, level of satisfaction, and contribution to the goals. The organisational aims, job objectives, and ultimately job outcomes may differ.
Therefore, employment should be redesigned to better suit employees. Job reengineering is the process of reallocating employment in order to align individual and organisational goals.
Importance of Job Design
- Job design makes roles and responsibilities clear. As a result, it prevents uncertainties in job performance.
- Job design eliminates overlaps in duties. Tasks become more logical as a result. It leads to the prevention of personnel conflicts.
- Job design enables effective employee placement. This makes it possible to find a career that is a good fit.
- It enables operational control over the efficacy and outcomes of work.
- Changes in the environment can be incorporated into the job’s design.
- It offers adaptability. Employees are thus willing to accept changes with little pushback.
- It fosters a desire to work hard. Managers can understand organisational behaviour through job design.
- Employees experience a higher quality of work life when jobs are designed properly.
- Job design enhances performance and organisational effectiveness while reducing stress.
Above all, the planned structuring of a job’s technical, social, and human components is referred to as job design.