What is the Liquid State of Matter?
The liquid is a state of matter which possesses no fixed shape or size but automatically adopts the shape of the vessel in which it is poured. The particles of matter are not present in close proximity with each other, and they have space between them. Thus, they can move freely.
Liquid is something without which we cannot assume our life. It is known to be one of the crucial components for the survival of living organisms.
You must be thinking, why it has no specific shape of its own but changes shape when placed inside any container? Soon you will find answers to all such questions.
The matter has three states namely, solid, liquid and gas. The three different states of matter are distinguished according to the different characteristics possessed by particles constituting the matter.
Before exploring more about liquid state, let’s see-
What is Matter?
Any entity in the universe which has some mass within it and is voluminous in nature is called matter. More simply, everything that we come across in nature (or in our surrounding) is matter as they hold some mass and volume and has their own characteristical properties.
Examples: Bottle, bread, air, pen, water droplet, paper, knife, phone, toy, and many more.
Matter is composed of particles and the characteristics possesed by the particles of matter specifically classify the three states in which matter exists.
Here our concern is the liquid state of matter which we will discuss in detail.
What is liquid state?
One of the states of matter, other than solid and gas that has no definite shape of its own but takes the shape of the vessel or container in which it is kept is liquid. The orientation of particles of liquid is such that there exists an adequate space between them that allows the free movement of particles.
Despite having no definite shape (as it can change shape), liquid possesses fixed volume, are not rigid and can flow hence sometimes called fluid.
You must note here something that all the three states i.e., solids, liquids and gases can be diffused into liquids. Liquids offer a higher diffusion rate than solids due to the fact that they have adequate space between its particles hence offers easy diffusion.
Properties of Liquids
- Force of Attraction: In liquids, there exists an appreciable amount of molecular force of attraction. This force of attraction is around 106 times as that of molecules of gas. This molecular force of attraction is not so weak that they can be dispersed by spontaneous separation as well as not so strong that the molecules attain a fixed position.
- Density: The molecules of liquids exhibit random motion but not as much as gases. They have some space between them where free movement of molecules takes place. Thus, molecules of liquids are dense but incompressible when compared with gases.
- Kinetic energy of molecules: The energy with which molecules move within the matter is their kinetic energy. And the kinetic energy of the molecules shows dependency on absolute temperature. When the temperature is increased then there is a decrease in the force of attraction between the molecules and hence there will be a decrease in vapour pressure.
So, it can be concluded that the characteristic properties of liquid show dependency on nature and magnitude of forces existing between the molecules.
Energy of Molecules in Liquid
Each molecule that forms liquid has some specific energy due to which they move and flow that causes bumping of them into each other. At the time of bumping of one molecule into another, energy from one is transferred to the other and this happens with all the molecules of the liquid. Due to this all the molecules of the liquid have a certain amount of energy but it is not necessary that all must have the same amount of energy.
What is the temperature of liquid then?
Basically, the temperature of liquid corresponds to the average kinetic energy of all the molecules constituting the liquid. Whenever there is an increase in the temperature of liquid then this corresponds to the change in kinetic energy of molecules of the liquid. This is so because they gain energy and start moving at a faster rate. So, with the increase in the speed of motion of molecules, the temperature will automatically increase.
But when the temperature becomes high, so the increased kinetic energy of the molecules leads to overcome the intermolecular forces that keep the molecules in the liquid state. So, resultantly the molecules moving in high speed evaporates and the matter leads to change the state from liquid to gas.