Oral Communication

What is Oral Communication?

Oral Communication is the process of transmitting ideas and information through spoken words. It is a verbal form of communication. The communication can be direct, i.e. person face to face communication or indirect via electronic i.e. call or video call which uses digital devices like mobile or laptop.

It is the most convenient and fastest means of communication because it gets an immediate response. Also, both sender and receiver of the message get to see each other’s expressions and/or listen to the tone of voice while conversing, which are non-verbal cues.

In simple terms, it is communication by mouth where spoken words are used for communication. When we start a conversation with someone, be it in-person or telephonic, it is called oral communication.

This kind of communication is appropriate when the matter is temporary and requires one-to-one interaction. It builds trust and reliability. Hence, it is also suitable for sensitive discussions like salary negotiations, conflict resolution, etc.

Table of Contents

  1. Fact
  2. Factors
  3. Essentials
  4. Elements
  5. Types
  6. Merits
  7. Demerits
  8. Wrap Up

Do you know?

In our total working time spent in verbal communication:

9% is spent on writing
16% is spent on reading
30% is spent on speaking and
45% is spent listening

While going for oral communication, one must make a careful selection of words, so that whatever the words connote, should mean precisely.

Factors of Oral Communication

  • Speaker
  • How does he speak?
  • What does he speak?
  • To whom he speaks?
  • Does he get feedback?

Essentials of Oral Communication

  1. Pronunciation of words should be proper and clear
  2. Conciseness, and Completeness
  3. Right tone and pitch
  4. Eye Contact
  5. Self Confidence
  6. Correct style and vocabulary

Elements of Oral Communication


  • Sender: The one who initiates the communication.
  • Medium: Medium refers to the means or method through which the message is being conveyed.
  • Channel: It is the platform used for delivering the message.
  • Receiver: The person to whom the communication is being targeted, i.e. he/she is the one to whom the message is being sent.
  • Feedback: The last step in the process of communication is the feedback. It is the response of the receiver of the communication which could be positive or negative. Further, no response is also a response. Further, this completes the entire cycle of communication.

Types of Oral Communication


  1. One-to-one communication: It is the basic or say direct conversation between two or more people, be it between friends, colleagues, bosses and employees etc. This can take place at both personal, professional or casual levels.
  2. Meetings: In an organization, meetings are held often. It is a forum, where the team leaders get an opportunity to put forth an issue for discussion and get ideas and solutions from the team members.
  3. Seminars: Seminars are held in the organization once a year, where numerous people come to talk on a specific topic. They are told in advance about this so that they can prepare their presentations and deliver them effectively in front of a large group of people.
  4. Radio and Television: News broadcasting by various media platforms like radio and television is also a form of oral communication. In this relevant information is conveyed to the audience.
  5. Telephone: We all are aware of this method, as we all use it all day long to stay connected with our loved ones. Telephones are used in both formal and informal settings, to talk about important matters and issues.
  6. Video Conferencing: It is one of the trending methods to convene meetings and discuss important issues with the team members who are at remote locations. This shortens the distance immediately.
  7. Speeches: It is a medium of communicating orally which allows one to communicate with numerous people at the same time. In a speech, the message can be conveyed about any subject to the masses. It has the capability of influencing the minds of the audience and getting the desired results.



  • Saving time and money: Oral communication consumes less time and money in comparison to written communication. In this, no amount of money is invested to produce oral communication as only spoken words are involved in it. So, we could say that it is economical
  • Immediate Feedback: Oral communication receives instant feedback. As soon as the words are spoken the receiver gets it. So, he can give feedback in the form of a reaction or response from his side right away.
  • Saves Paperwork: Paperwork is zero to minimal, as communication takes place through words only.
  • Effective tool for exhortation: Salespeople can use it effectively to clarify the doubts of their clients and customers and easily persuade them to take the desired action.
  • Builds a healthy climate: With oral communication, a friendly and healthy relationship can be developed between the sender and receiver of the message. This is because there is less formality.
  • Best tool during an emergency: At times of emergency, it is regarded as the most appropriate tool for communication. This is because an immediate and fast response is required.
  • Immediate clarification: The communicator of the message can clarify any points of doubt to the receiver which are misunderstood.



  • Greater chances of misunderstanding: As the message is in the form of spoken words, one cannot refer to the message again. Hence, there are higher chances of misinterpretation of the message.
  • Bad speaker: It is very important for a speaker to have good communication skills to speak effectively and produce good results. However, a bad speaker transmits the message in the wrong manner. Do you know at the time of speaking, the speaker not just communicates through his words, but his voice modulation, tone, body language and everything else speaks a lot? If there is any mismatch between these then the message is interpreted wrongly.
  • Ineffective for lengthy communication: It is quite obvious that oral communication is not good for lengthy messages, because the receiver may not be able to retain long messages and some important points may be missed out.
  • No legal validity: As there is no proof of record of what has been said, the speaker may deny later what he has said. Hence, its value is low in a formal organizational setting.

Wrap Up

The day of a person starts with oral communication, when we ask for something or express our views or desire for anything. It is not just about words but speech, articulation body language and fluency and intonation are also important parts of oral communication.

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