PCOD stands for ‘Polycystic Ovary Disease‘ while PCOS is for ‘Polycystic Ovary Syndrome‘. This medical condition occurs in women and affects their reproductive organs producing hormones like estrogen and progesterone’s that regulates the menstrual cycle. Additionally, it also affects the ovaries and triggers the production of small amount relaxin, inhibin and male hormones (androgens).

Approximately 10% women throughout the world are sufferings from the PCOD. In PCOS, the male hormone production is in high amount compared to the PCOD. This irregularity raise the problems of skipping the menstrual periods and thus harder to conceive.

Common signs and Symptoms of PCOD/ PCOS

In some cases, the problems are noticeable from the beginning of their first period, however some females find these in their later stage of life when some or the other medical issues are been faced, such as weight gain, issue in getting pregnant, etc. Following points are the general signs or symptoms observed in the females having PCOD/PCOS:

  • Irregular ( Oligomenorrhea)or absence of menstruation (Amenorrhea).
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding (Menorrhagia).
  • Weight gain.
  • Skin acne ( chest, face, upper back).
  • Hair loss.
  • Skin darkening ( under the breasts, neck, in the groin).


The particular patient requires medical assistant, when they notice the above mentioned signs/symptoms in their body. Though as body varies form one person to other, and so one may face other medical issue that are can be the cause of the PCOD/PCOS. In the upcoming points we will explore the common challenges or problems that are been faced by the sufferer:

  • Hypertension Infertility or Infertility.
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
  • Preterm labor and premature birth.
  • Metabolic syndrome ( high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, diabetes).
  • Depression and anxiety ( reasons can be numerous such as weight gain, acne, hair loss, lack of sleep).
  • Sleep apnea ( common in females who are overweight, repetition in pauses in breathing during sleep).
  • Endometrial cancer ( thickened uterine lining can be the cause).
  • Miscarriage ( spontaneous loss of pregnancy’s).

Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)

As the name suggest that under this medical issue, the ovaries of that particular women will produce partially or completely immature eggs in large amount, that later on takes the shape of a cysts in the ovaries.

In addition, in the later part the size of the ovaries gets enlarged and starts secreting androgens (male hormones). This results in irregular menstrual cycle, infertility, weight gain, hair loss, sleeping issues. This can be controlled by the healthy diet, regular exercise and positive modifications in the lifestyle.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

In this medical condition, women’s who are passing through their reproductive years are been captured. So, we can see that this metabolic disorder is noticeable in women’s between 12 to 51 years. This results in the hormonal imbalance, as there is rise in androgens ( male hormones) in the body, one can face the trouble their regular menstrual cycle that can be irregular or it can get skip even.

Additionally, abnormal ovulation that results in difficulties in getting pregnant, then hair growth on face and body parts, it can also lead to heart disease, diabetes.

PCOS is more severe medical condition, that can’t be neglected and need proper medical advice and other surgical treatment.

Causes of PCOS

Though its challenging to know the exact reasons for the PCOS, but following are the some crucial factors which are been known till date:

Low-grade inflammation
Excess androgen production
Excess insulin production

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