Photovoltaic System and Its Components

The photovoltaic system, which is also referred to as  PV system or solar power system is a system that converts incident solar energy/ sunlight into usable electric power. In our today’s content, we will talk about the photovoltaic system and its components.


Increasing global warming concerns and energy security issues have made solar energy conversion the most important need of today. The use of Solar cells with more efficiency will lead to efficient use of this clean and renewable energy source, that is, solar energy.  The use of solar PV technology is increasing day by day and it is set to become a leading technology for energy conversion. The use of solar energy will assure a better and cleaner tomorrow.

The term “ Photovoltaic ”  is a combination of two words – Photo and Voltaic, where, Photo means light, and voltaic means electricity. PV technology means the hardware that converts sunlight into usable electrical energy. The components of a photovoltaic system include a solar panel, charge controller, DC to AC power inverter, etc. In addition to this, it may have a battery bank with other system hardware which includes wiring, overcurrent protection, surge protection, and other power processing components.

Photovoltaic System and Its Components

Photovoltaic System And Its Component

1. Solar Panel/Module

  • Silicon Wafer
    Silicon is the basic material for the entire photovoltaic industry. It is the second most abundant material available in the earth’s crust. A lot of energy is required in making a pure silicon wafer, which is then processed into a solar cell.
  • Solar Cell
    The most important part of a photovoltaic system is the solar cell. It collects sunlight. The output power of a single solar cell is quite low. Therefore many cells are connected in series to increase the voltage and several series and connected in parallel to increase the output power in order to run/operate electrical appliances. Monocrystalline silicon, Polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide are the solar cell technology widely used today across the world.

2. Battery Bank

A battery or a battery bank is the most common type of energy storage device used in solar PV systems. It stores the electrical energy generated by the solar cell or module. The energy thus stored in the battery can be used by the electrical load when required. It also makes energy available in rainy/cloudy weather.

3. Charge Controller

The charge controller is a device that is used to control the charge flowing in and out of a battery. The charge controller is placed between the PV module and the battery. It acts as a voltage regulator. Its basic function is to protect the battery from overcharging.

4. Inverter

The power output from a solar module in DC power. To run AC loads it is important to convert DC power in AC. For this inverter is used. An inverter is an electronic device that converts DC power to AC power. It is placed between batteries and loads.

5. Blocking Diode

It is a type of charge controller which prevents the discharge of batteries during low light and during the night.

6. Other Components of Photovoltaic System

Other components include electrical connections and mounting structures. Electrical components include electrical wires, cables, and others. Mounting components include metallic frames, nuts, bolts, clamps, and others.

So this is all about the photovoltaic system, its technology, and its component.

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