Point to Point WAN

Point to Point WAN is a kind of network where two end devices are connected using a public network, for example, telephone network. In this article, we will discuss some devices that we use to establish a point to point wide area network.

Point to Point WAN

  1. Modems
  2. DSL Technology
  3. Cable Modem
  4. T Lines
  5. SONET
  6. PPP

Traditional Modems

While talking of the internet you might have heard the term modem. A modem is a hardware device that performs modulation and demodulation of the signals. The modem at one end is connected to your computer or other devices like routers or switches and at other ends to a telephone wire.

A modem converts the ‘digital signals’ from your computer to the ‘analog signals’ and ‘analog signals’ from telephone wire to ‘digital signals’ that can be understood by the computer. Modem V.90 and V.92 connects a host to the internet at the rate of 56 Kbps.

DSL Technology

DSL is a digital subscriber line developed by telephone companies to provide a high data rate to access the internet. DSL transmits digital signals over the telephone wire. DSL has come up with the set of technologies such as ADSL, VDSL, HDSL, and SDSL which is collectively often referred to as xDSL.

  • ADSL
    ADSL is asymmetric DSL which was introduced for the residential users. ADSL is similar to the modem but provide high downloading speed i.e. from the internet to host computer as compared to uploading. This the reason why it is termed as asymmetric because of the difference in speed of uploading and downloading.
    This is not an ideal service for business customer who requires higher speed for both uploading and downloading.
  • However, the other DSL technologies such as symmetric DSL i.e. (SDSL) is meant for business customers who need higher speed for both uploading and downloading. SDSL divides the higher bandwidth equally between uploading and downloading.
  • Higher bit-rate DSL (HDSL) implements AMI (alternate mark inversion). HDSL is susceptible to attenuation at higher frequencies which require repeaters for long-distance but it increases the cost.
  • Very high bit-rate DSL (VDSL) is similar to ADSL it uses coaxial cable, fibre optic or twisted pair cable for communication.

Cable Modem

Though DSL provides high-speed access to the internet, it uses unshielded twisted pair cable for connecting host to the internet. But the unshielded twisted pair cable is susceptible to interference.

So, cable companies have come up with the solution i.e. cable TV network. Cable TV uses community antenna which is generally hooked up at the top of the building. These community antennas receive signals from the TV station and transmit it to the community using coaxial cable.

These traditional cable TV networks are unidirectional as the community cable receives video signals from broadcasting and transmit signals to subscribers via coaxial cable.

Hybrid fibre-coaxial network uses a combination of fibre optic and coaxial cable. It is a bidirectional cable network.

T Lines

T lines are the high-speed digital telephone carrier. T lines multiplex voice channels. It carries data from a residence to the internet.


Synchronous optical network (SONET) uses high bandwidth fibre optic cable which is suitable for both highest data rate technologies like video conferencing and lower data rate technologies at the same time.

Initially, the SONET first defines the electronic signals and then converts it to optical signals that can be transmitted at 8000 frames per seconds.


Point to point protocol PPP is designed to manage and control the transfer of data between the user and the internet.

In this way, point to point WAN has several devices to manage and control the transfer of data between the users and the internet. We have covered almost all the devices that that establishes the point to point wide area network.

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