Point to Point WAN

What is Point-to-Point WAN?

Point-to-Point WAN is a kind of computer network where two end devices are connected using a public network. For example, a telephone network. In this content, we will discuss some devices that we use to establish a point-to-point wide area network.

Table of Contents

  1. Modems
  2. DSL Technology
  3. Cable Modem
  4. T Lines
  5. SONET
  6. PPP

Traditional Modems

While talking about the internet, you might have heard the term modem. A modem is a hardware device that performs modulation and demodulation of signals. The modem at one end is connected to your computer or other devices like routers or switches, and at the other end to a telephone wire.

A modem converts the ‘digital signals’ from your computer to the ‘analog signals’ and ‘analog signals’ from telephone wire to ‘digital signals’ that the computer can understand. Modem V.90 and V.92 connect a host to the internet at the rate of 56 Kbps.

DSL Technology

DSL is a digital subscriber line developed by telephone companies to provide a high data rate to access the internet. The DSL transmits digital signals over the telephone wire. Further, DSL has come up with a set of technologies such as ADSL, VDSL, HDSL, and SDSL, which is collectively often referred to as xDSL.

  • ADSL
    ADSL is asymmetric DSL which was introduced for residential users. ADSL is similar to the modem but provides high downloading speed, i.e. from the internet to the host computer as compared to uploading. This is the reason why it is termed asymmetric because of the difference in speed of uploading and downloading.
    This is not an ideal service for business customer who requires higher speed for both uploading and downloading.
  • However, the other DSL technologies, such as symmetric DSL, i.e. (and SDSL) are meant for business customers who need higher speed for both uploading and downloading. SDSL divides the higher bandwidth equally between uploading and downloading.
  • Moreover, Higher bit-rate DSL (HDSL) implements AMI (alternate mark inversion). HDSL is susceptible to attenuation at higher frequencies which require repeaters for long-distance, but it increases the cost.
  • Very high bit-rate DSL (VDSL) is similar to ADSL. It uses coaxial cable, fibre optic or twisted pair cable for communication.

Cable Modem

Though DSL provides high-speed access to the internet, it uses unshielded twisted pair cables for connecting the host to the internet. But the unshielded twisted pair cable is susceptible to interference.

So, cable companies have come up with a solution, i.e. cable TV networks. Cable TV uses a community antenna, which is generally hooked up at the top of the building. These community antennas receive signals from the TV station and transmit them to the community using coaxial cable.

These traditional cable TV networks are unidirectional as the community cable receives video signals from broadcasting and transmits signals to subscribers via coaxial cable.

A Hybrid fibre-coaxial network uses a combination of fibre optic and coaxial cable. It is a bidirectional cable network.

T Lines

These lines are the high-speed digital telephone carrier. T lines multiplex voice channels. Further, it carries data from a residence to the internet.


Synchronous optical network (SONET) uses high bandwidth fibre optic cable, which is suitable for both the highest data rate technologies like video conferencing and lower data rate technologies at the same time.

Initially, the SONET first defines the electronic signals and then converts it to optical signals that can be transmitted at 8000 frames per second.


Point-to-point protocol PPP is designed to manage and control the transfer of data between the user and the internet.

Above all, point-to-point WAN has several devices to manage and control the transfer of data between the users and the internet. We have covered almost all the devices that establish the point-to-point wide area network.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *