What is Electric Power Supply System?
An electric power supply system is a network that provides the generated electricity to the electrical device so that it can be utilized in the form of usable power. To whatever the device, the power supply is connected, it must drive the load of the device.
In simplest terminology, one can say that the power which is supplied to the load of any electrical device is regarded as power supply. And a system of multiple units that provides the power while operating in consolidated manner is called power supply system.
Basics of Power Supply System
The power supply system provides the electricity from the source to the load. Mainly the system comprises of three components which are the generating stations, transmission lines and the distribution systems.
One must note here that the power supply unit is of hardware nature and is mainly classified as AC and DC power supply. This major classification depends on whether the electric device to which the supply is connected is powered by AC source or DC source.
In earlier days, the need for electrical energy was quite low and so even with small electrical generating unit, the demand could be compensated. However, in today’s time the case is not the same as the need for electrical energy is increasing at a higher rate. The reason behind the same is nothing other than modernization of lifestyles of human beings.
This has increased the overall need for electrical power and thus large power plants are established. Building large power plants at various stations is not economical and therefore the power plants are built at locations where natural sources of energy like coal, water and gases are present. Therefore, electrical generating stations are established so that electricity can be provided to consumer ends from the generating stations.
Any electrical supply system mainly has three components which are generating stations, the transmission lines, and the distribution systems.
Types of Power Supply
Mainly power supplies have the following classification:
Unregulated: It is known to be one of the simplest forms of power supply that has a transformer, rectifier along with LPF. There is a high amount of ripple voltage exhibited by this kind of power supply. Not only this there is AC noise also that is superimposed on the DC power.
In such power supplies, the input and output voltages are directly proportional to each other. Its most advantageous factors are simplicity, great efficiency along with its cheapness.
Linear Regulated: It is somewhat an advancement of unregulated power supply where an additional element i.e., transistor is used that operates in its active state also referred to as linear mode thus called linear regulator.
This system is designed in such a way that for quite a wide range of input, the output obtained must be fixed. Here the system operates in such a way that the extra input voltage id dropped so that one can get maximal amount of voltage at the output. However, the drop in voltage results in increase in power dissipation that liberates in the form of heat.
One of its crucial drawbacks is that if the input voltage is very much low then regulation of transistor will be lost and steady voltage will not be achieved. It is due to this reason, the applied input is kept 1 to 3 volts higher than the desired output.
This is all about the power supply system.