What is Thyroid?

A small butterfly-shaped organ is present in the base of the neck swaddled around the windpipe (trachea). One of the crucial glands of the body, that regulates metabolism while releasing the hormones that are assigned to perform their specific task.

Any kind of irregularity in this gland may result in the dysfunction of the numerous other body functions, such as:

  • Heart rate
  • Breathing
  • Digestion
  • Bodyweight
  • Muscles strength
  • Body temperature
  • Cholesterol
  • Central and peripheral nervous system, etc.

Therefore, thyroid disorders may lead to goiter (enlargement of the gland) that are harmless up to major life-threatening diseases like cancer. Though the most common problems occurring in most humans involve the abnormal or irregular production of thyroid hormones, these are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

The overproduction of this hormone may result in the condition known as hyperthyroidism, in this our body consumes the energy too quickly.

On the other hand, when there is insufficient or less production of the hormones causes hypothyroidism, where the body feels tired, may gain weight, and intolerance of cold temperature.

Causes of the Thyroid Problems

As discussed above, that under ‘hyperthyroid‘ condition – there is an overproduction of the hormone, but the results may vary, which are described as follows:

Subacute thyroiditis

In this there is an inflammation in the thyroid gland, resulting in the flow of excess amount of thyroid hormones in the body, though this is the temporary condition of hyperthyroidism, it persists for a long duration.

Grave’s disease

It is the consequence of too much production of the thyroid hormone. So, we can say that the gland is overactive and resulting in toxic goiter.

Pituitary gland malfunctions or thyroid gland cancerous condition

This is a rare form but is life-threatening too.

Toxic adenomas

In this condition, nodules are formed in the thyroid gland, which starts secreting the thyroid hormone and thereby disturbing the chemical balance of the body. These are generally found in a few of the goiters, which leads to multi-nodular goiter due to overactive participation of the thyroid gland.

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

  • Sensitive to heat.
  • Weight loss.
  • Enlarged thyroid gland.
  • Irregular sleep.
  • Irregular menstrual cycle.
  • Problems in vision.

Hypothyroid Conditions

In hypothyroid condition, there is less or underproduction of the thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.

Types of Hypothyroidism

The types of hypothyroidism are described below:

Removal of thyroid hormones

Under medical supervision, it is now possible to remove the thyroid gland or it is chemically destroyed.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

In this disorder, the body’s defense mechanism starts acting against the gland’s tissue that resulting in the death of the tissues, and thus the production of hormones also stops.


This drug is also been one of the major causes of hypothyroidism.

Introducing an excessive amount of iodide

By intake of medicines of heart, cold and sinus or exposure to the contrast dyed given before few X-rays process that contains iodine in it, are the people, who have higher chances of the hypothyroidism.

If left untreated, hypothyroidism may get the person into a myxedema coma, a rare but fatal condition that requires immediate hormone correction.

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

  • Weight gain.
  • Fatigueless or feeling tired.
  • Changing from normal to a hoarse voice.
  • Dry and coarse hair.
  • Intolerance to cold temperatures.
  • Experiencing forgetfulness.


The thyroid gland is only 2 inches, but its functionality is vital. Visit your health care provider regularly, to test for the thyroid level, which can be done by taking blood samples, imagining techniques,s or physically examining the patient, which may vary from person to person.

Anti-thyroid drugs, Radioactive iodine, Beta-blockers, or surgery are the options available for the further cure of the hormones.

So, this is all about the thyroid.

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