In the human skeletal system, the point at which two or more bones are connected is called as the joints or the articular surface. The type of cartilage tissue that plays the significant role in adhering such adjacent bones with each other.
Broadly there are three types of joints namely Fibrous Joints, Synovial Joints and Cartilaginous Joints. The main function of joints is to bring about the movements in various parts of the body. This article will shed light on different types of joints with their example.
Categories of Joints
Joints are been categorized on the basis of two factors:
a. The measure to which the joints permit the mobility.
b. Tissues type which is connecting the bones.
The above given categories are further sub-divided into more, this article will further discuss on each of them particularly:
a. On the ground of the the measure to which the joints permit the mobility, those types of joints are:
1. Slightly Movable Joint or Amphiarthroses: This type of joint allows slight motion, which is supported by the cartilaginous tissue. Such type of joint is found between intervertebral discs.
2. Fixed Joint or Synarthroses: This type of joint either allow minimal or no motion between the bones. Such type of joints are fibrous joints and therefore the connecting tissues is fibrous by nature. Fixed joint are found in sutures between skull bones.
3. Freely Moveable Joint or Synovial Joints: These are also known as ‘diarthroses’. It is known for providing the maximum movements between the joints of the participating bones. Freely moveable joints are further categorized into six more types, on the basis of the their movements.
Hinge Joint: This type of joint is seen in the knee and elbow, that allows the movements in one axis. However, the the types of motion performed by this joint are the extension and flexion.
Ball and Socket Joint: This type of joint is present in the hip joint and in shoulder joint. There is the involvement of two bones where one bone of the larger bone having the rounded end that fits into the cup-like socket of the other bone.
Saddle Joint: This type is present in the carpo-metacarpal joint in the thumb, where the the two connecting bones have opposite surface like one has the convex while other has the concave surface.
Pivot Joint: This type is commonly found in atlantooccipital joint of the neck that allows the rotation along one axis.
Gliding/Ellipsoid Joint: This joint is in the wrist that permits the the movements in two axes. gliding joint are almost similar to the ball and socket joint.
b. On the ground of tissues type which is connecting to the bones, there are three more types of joints, they are:
Synovial: When the two bones create the synovial cavity along with the synovial fluid forms the connecting tissue. These joints are there in different shapes and therefore, affects the type movements by the joints. Example is hinge, pivot, planar,
Cartilaginous: When the cartilage work as connecting tissue between two or more bones in the skeletal system. This joint provides the support and are slightly movable in the animals and humans bones as well. Example is Intervertebral discs, Neurocentral joints
Fibrous: When the tissue connects the two bones are fibrous in nature. Example backbone, skull, upper jaw, rib cage.
Issues in Joints
There are few common conditions that may occur in joints:
Additionally, movement and locomotion is not only the function which is performed by them, infact joints also help in stabilizing the body parts and support them.